“They saw their injured country's woe;
The flaming town, the wasted field;
Then rushed to meet the insulting foe;
They took the spear, - but left the shield.”
Very important to learn early on the vast difference between ALLUSIONS and ILLUSIONS, I should think.If one does not become familiar with the Bible, with much of Shakespeare, with Greek, Roman, Norse and Teutonic mythology EARLY in life, one may never hope to become truly educated. TRAINED, perhaps, for specific tasks, but not EDUCATED.Also, few seem to be are these days that HUMOR with any degree of sophistication depends greatly on ALLUSIONS to characters and specific events in classic literature.I've been aware for a good many years, however, that it might be possible to MEMORIZE virtually every word in the Bible, in Shakespeare, and be able to list all the characters in each play and novel in the Western Canon with perfect accuracy and STILL not have the faintest grasp of what these important works signify.A longtime friend of one of my uncles could tell you the name population of every county, city, town and village in each of the United States. He could also tell you what with products each of these places was primarily associated. He loved to show off his special knowledge at the drop of hat, BUT he knew nothing of the beauty of the topography or geological features in these places, knew noting of the historic architecture, and nothing about the lifestyles of the people who'd lived there either historically or contemporaneously.In short the poor man was a thundering bore, and didn't have sense enough to know it. He was bit like someone who'd mastered the rules of French grammar, and developed a wide vocabulary, but never learned to pronounce French properly, never read any novels, plays or poetry in French, wouldn't know the Chateaux in the Loire valley and never had the pleasure of tasting escargot, pate de foie gras, blanquette de veau, Bouillabaisse, or crepes Suzette, and who wouldn't know Claude Debussy, Poulenc, or Edith Piaf from Dinah Shore, Elvis Presley or Andrew Lloyd Webber, who gave us The Phantom of the Opera and Cats.
He sounds very "intertextual"... I'll bet that HE would recognize the Millenium Falcon...
What is education?
Life in Plato's cavern ("Republic")... And now, I said, let me show in a figure how far our nature is enlightened or unenlightened:—Behold! human beings living in a underground den, which has a mouth open towards the light and reaching all along the den; here they have been from their childhood, and have their legs and necks chained so that they cannot move, and can only see before them, being prevented by the chains from turning round their heads. Above and behind them a fire is blazing at a distance, and between the fire and the prisoners there is a raised way; and you will see, if you look, a low wall built along the way, like the screen which marionette players have in front of them, over which they show the puppets.I see.And do you see, I said, men passing along the wall carrying all sorts of vessels, and statues and figures of animals made of wood and stone and various materials, which appear over the wall? Some of them are talking, others silent.You have shown me a strange image, and they are strange prisoners.Like ourselves, I replied; and they see only their own shadows, or the shadows of one another, which the fire throws on the opposite wall of the cave?True, he said; how could they see anything but the shadows if they were never allowed to move their heads?And of the objects which are being carried in like manner they would only see the shadows?Yes, he said.And if they were able to converse with one another, would they not suppose that they were naming what was actually before them?Very true.And suppose further that the prison had an echo which came from the other side, would they not be sure to fancy when one of the passers-by spoke that the voice which they heard came from the passing shadow?No question, he replied.To them, I said, the truth would be literally nothing but the shadows of the images.That is certain.And now look again, and see what will naturally follow if the prisoners are released and disabused of their error. At first, when any of them is liberated and compelled suddenly to stand up and turn his neck round and walk and look towards the light, he will suffer sharp pains; the glare will distress him, and he will be unable to see the realities of which in his former state he had seen the shadows; and then conceive some one saying to him, that what he saw before was an illusion, but that now, when he is approaching nearer to being and his eye is turned towards more real existence, he has a clearer vision,—what will be his reply? And you may further imagine that his instructor is pointing to the objects as they pass and requiring him to name them,—will he not be perplexed? Will he not fancy that the shadows which he formerly saw are truer than the objects which are now shown to him?Far truer.And if he is compelled to look straight at the light, will he not have a pain in his eyes which will make him turn away to take refuge in the objects of vision which he can see, and which he will conceive to be in reality clearer than the things which are now being shown to him?True, he said.And suppose once more, that he is reluctantly dragged up a steep and rugged ascent, and held fast until he is forced into the presence of the sun himself, is he not likely to be pained and irritated? When he approaches the light his eyes will be dazzled, and he will not be able to see anything at all of what are now called realities.Not all in a moment, he said.He will require to grow accustomed to the sight of the upper world. And first he will see the shadows best, next the reflections of men and other objects in the water, and then the objects themselves; then he will gaze upon the light of the moon and the stars and the spangled heaven; and he will see the sky and the stars by night better than the sun or the light of the sun by day?Certainly.
The question I took to answer was, "What is a liberal education?" ;)
If you need a plumber, I would recommend employing someone with a vocational education, NOT a liberal one. ;)
Isaiah Berlin, "Letter to George Kennan"We distinguish to this extent between factual and value judgement--that we deny the right to tamper with human beings to an unlimited extent, whatever the truth about the laws of history; we might go further and deny the notion that "history" in some mysterious way "confers" upon us "rights" to do this or that; that some men or bodies of men can morally claim a right to our obedience because they, in some sense, carry out the behests of "history," are its chosen instrument, its medicine or scourge or in some important sense "Welthistorisch"--great, irresistible, riding the waves of the future, beyond our petty, subjective, not rationally bolsterable ideas of right and wrong. Many a German and I daresay many a Russian or Mongol or Chinese today feels that it is more adult to recognise the sheer immensity of the great events that shake the world, and play a part in history worthy of men by abandoning themselves to them, than by praising or damning and indulging in bourgeois moralisings: the notion that history must be applauded as such is the horrible German way out of the burden of moral choice.If pushed to the extreme, this doctrine would, of course, do away with all education, since when we send children to school or influence them in other ways without obtaining their approval for what we are doing, are we not "tampering" with them, "moulding" them like pieces of clay with no purpose of their own? Our answer has to be that certainly all "moulding" is evil, and that if human beings at birth had the power of choice and the means of understanding the world, it would be criminal; since they have not, we temporarily enslave them, for fear that, otherwise, they will suffer worse misfortunes from nature and from men, and this "temporary enslavement" is a necessary evil until such time as they are able to choose for themselves--the "enslavement" having as its purpose not an inculcation of obedience but its contrary, the development of power of free judgement and choice; still, evil it remains, even if necessary.
(cont.)Communists and Fascists maintain that this kind of "education" is needed not only for children but for entire nations for long periods, the slow withering away of the State corresponding to immaturity in the lives of individuals. The analogy is specious because peoples, nations are not individuals and still less children; moreover in promising maturity their practice belies their professions; that is to say, they are lying, and for the most part know that they are. From a necessary evil in the case of the education of helpless children, this kind of practice becomes an evil on a much larger scale, and quite gratuitous, based either on utilitarianism, which misrepresents our moral values, or again on metaphors which misdescribe both what we call good and bad, and the nature of the world, the facts themselves. For we, i.e. those who join with us, are more concerned with making people free than making them happy; we would rather that they chose badly than not at all; because we believe that unless they choose they cannot be either happy or unhappy in any sense in which these conditions are worth having; the very notion of "worth having" presupposes the choice of ends, a system of free preferences; and an undermining of them is what strikes us with such cold terror, worse than the most unjust sufferings, which nevertheless leave the possibility of knowing them for what they are--of free judgement, which makes it possible to condemn them--still open.You say that men who in this way undermine the lives of other men will end by undermining themselves, and the whole evil system is therefore doomed to collapse. In the long run I am sure you are right, because open-eyed cynicism, the exploitation of others by men who avoid being exploited themselves, is an attitude difficult for human beings to keep up for very long. It needs too much discipline and appalling strain in an atmosphere of such mutual hatred and distrust as cannot last because there is not enough moral intensity or general fanaticism to keep it going. But still the run can be very long before it is over, and I do not believe that the corrosive force from inside will work away at the rate which perhaps you, more hopefully, anticipate. I feel that we must avoid being inverted Marxists. Marx and Hegel observed the economic corrosion in their lifetime, and so the revolution seemed to be always round the corner. They died without seeing it, and perhaps it would have taken centuries if Lenin had not given history a sharp jolt. Without the jolt, are moral forces alone sufficient to bury the Soviet grave-diggers? I doubt it. But that in the end the worm would eat them I doubt no more than you; but whereas you say that is an isolated evil, a monstrous scourge sent to try us, not connected with what goes on elsewhere, I cannot help seeing it as an extreme and distorted but only too typical form of some general attitude of mind from which our own countries are not exempt.
wow I do not recognize the world any longer dude..Have a terrific weekend FJ!:-)God bless you my friend:)
Thanks Angel. You have a great Memorial Day weekend, too!
___________ REMEMBER ___________Remember me when I am gone away,Gone far away into the silent land;When you can no more hold me by the hand,Nor I half turn to go yet turning stay.Remember me when no more, day by day,You tell me of our future that you plann'd:Only remember me; you understandIt will be late to counsel then or pray.Yet if you should forget me for a whileAnd afterwards remember, do not grieve:For if the darkness and corruption leaveA vestige of the thoughts that once I had,Better by far you should forget and smileThan that you should remember and be sad.~ Christina Rossetti (1836-1894)POSTED in HONOR of MEMORIAL DAY, 2016
PS: The cameo is beautiful, but I'll be damned if I can tell what it has to do with the rest of the post. (Remember i can't view videos until Flash Player decides to allow it again.)
This was a post on "intertextuality" in the movies as opposed to literary allusions in classical literature.
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